California State Assembly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In both the California State Assembly and the California State Senate, there are designated officers and elected leaders of these two bodies. We’ll take a quick look at some of those positions in the text and cover more of the positions in today’s podcast. We’ll start with the California State Assembly.

Speaker – he or she is the highest-ranking officer of the Assembly and is elected by the members at the beginning of the two-year session. He or she presides over floor sessions and has extensive powers and duties established by the Assembly Rules.

Majority and Minority Floor Leaders – The Majority Floor Leader is elected by the members of the majority party caucus, who represents the Speaker on the floor and oversees the floor proceedings through parliamentary procedures such as motions and points of order. The Minority Floor Leader is elected by the caucus having the second largest membership in the Assembly and is generally responsible for making motions and points of orders and representing the minority caucus on the Assembly Floor.

Majority and Minority Whips – The Whip is essentially the political leadership of each party in the Assembly. They are elected by their caucuses or appointed by the Speaker and there are usually Assistant Majority Whips and of course, on the other side of the aisle, there is the Minority Whip who is selected by the Republican leader and there are often multiple Assistant Minority Whips.

There are many positions in the California State Senate that are very similar to their counterparts in the Assembly so I’ll focus instead on President of the Senate and the President Pro Tem of the Senate.

President of the Senate – By law, this is the Lieutenant Governor. However, by custom the role is extremely limited. He or she may be invited periodically to preside over ceremonial occasions, such as the opening of the two-year legislative session. The only time the Lt. Governor is entitled to participate in the business of the Senate is in the case of a tie vote when he or she would cast the tie breaking vote.

Senate President Pro Tem – He or she is the leader of the Senate and serves as the chair of the Rules Committee. This individual is elected by the members, generally, at the start of the two-year session. The Pro Tem is the presiding officer who oversees the appointment of committee members, the assignment of bills, and the confirmation of Gubernatorial appointees, and of course, he or she is also the political leader of the majority party.

You can find a transcript of today’s podcast here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a number of publications that are regularly used by the California Legislature and those who work in and around California’s state capitol. Of note is that several of these publications are specified in the California Government Code. I’ll provide a brief overview of some of the publications here, but I cover more in today’s podcast.

As an overarching provision, all printing for the Legislature and the individual houses is governed by the respective rules of the Senate and the Assembly, as well as the Joint Rules of the two houses. The Secretary of the Senate and the Chief Clerk of the Assembly are charged with printing all of the legislative bills, resolutions, constitutional amendments that are proposed by their respective members.

All of the legislative printing is done by the State Printing Office, or SPO, which is required by statute to print all of the laws, including initiative measures, as well as any other printing that is ordered by either the Senate or the Assembly. Now, by statute, the officers of the Assembly must appear on the front of all Assembly publications. There is no statutory requirement for the officers of the Senate. However, the same procedure is used in that house.

Article II of the Government Code deals with the Daily Journals of the Assembly and Senate. These two must be published by the State Printing Office. At least one copy of each Daily Journal of the Assembly and Senate must be authenticated. And after the final adjournment of the Legislature, the Journals for the entire session are bound and provided to the Secretary of State’s office.

Article III deals with the Legislative Manual. The Senate Secretary and the Assembly Chief Clerk must compile a Legislative Manual, or handbook, in December of each even-numbered year. The Legislative Manual includes state officers, members, and officers of both houses, lists of committees, rules of both houses, as well as the Joint Rules and other information that is deemed to be of use to legislators. This manual is provided to each legislator and elected state officer, as well as libraries throughout the state.

If you want to learn more about other legislative publications covered in the California Government Code, please listen to today’s podcast. You can find a transcript of today’s podcast here.

 

Publishing Letters to the Journal (transcript)

Today’s post is on publishing letters to the Journal for determining legislative intent.

Sometimes in order to explain the intent behind a specific piece of legislation, one or both houses of the Legislature will utilize a process by which a legislator publishes a letter stating his or her intent to explain the piece of legislation. For Assembly Members, this is published in the Assembly Daily Journal, and for Senators this is published in the Senate Daily Journal.

Generally this letter from the legislator is used to explain perhaps an ambiguity in the bill, or explain the purpose of a particular change in the law or for some other reason. Again, in both the State Assembly and the State Senate such a letter to the Journal is a rather formal process. For example, the letter must be on the legislator’s letterhead and signed by that particular legislator.

The general custom and practice of the two houses of California’s Legislature is to have the respective leadership staff – meaning both the majority Democrat and minority Republican parties – review the contents of that letter from the legislator and determine whether or not either party has any objections to the contents found in the letter. Now, the consultants to the majority and minority parties may request revisions to that letter to the Journal, otherwise they’ll give their consent.

Now, if approval is not received by both sides of the aisle – and this is a rare occurrence – then the legislator can request that the letter be printed in the respective Daily Journal with a majority vote.

The general practice is that the Assembly letters are authored by the individual Assembly Member and they’re addressed to the Chief Clerk of the Assembly. Senate letters are written by the individual Senator, of course on his or her letterhead, and are addressed to the Secretary of the Senate.

The California Legislature’s Organizing Session (transcript)

With this year being an even numbered year, the California Legislature’s organizing session will take place next Monday, December 3. Today’s post and podcast is an overview of California’s legislative organizing session.

As you may be aware, the California Legislature operates during two-year legislative sessions. At the commencement of the two-year session, the Legislature must organize itself.

In that regard there are several provisions related to organizing the Legislature. The first is found in the California Constitution, and the other provisions in the California Government Code. According to Article IV, Section 3a of the state constitution, “The Legislature shall convene in regular session at noon on the first Monday in December of each even numbered year, and each House shall immediately organize.”

This date falls every two years, roughly three weeks – perhaps four on occasion – after the statewide General Election has taken place. The two houses convene that first session at noon and it generally lasts about two hours.

At these organizing sessions, both the elected officials and their families and supporters are in attendance. They rarely engage in regular business other than introducing their first bills, which not all legislators do on that first day in session.

They’ll often visit with colleagues and former legislators, and attend and enjoy the pomp and circumstance of that organizing session. Thereafter, in the first week of January when they reconvene, that’s when legislators commence the serious work ahead that will last for the following two years.

Please be sure to listen to today’s podcast which covers the sections of California’s Government Code that dictate the rules for the California Legislature’s organizing session.

 

 

 

The Suspense File (transcript)

Today’s post is on the suspense file and the process used to consider fiscal legislation in the California Legislature.

The two appropriations committees in the California Legislature have a unique procedure and each of them terms it the “Suspense File.” In California, as opposed to the US Congress where the appropriations committees actually appropriate money, the two appropriations committees in the Senate and the Assembly are the ones charged with considering the fiscal effects of legislation.

A measure that is keyed, or tagged, fiscal by the Legislative Counsel generally means that the bill will be referred to the fiscal committee in each house after the appropriate policy committee(s) has/have actually heard and considered the bill, and passed it out.

Under the Joint Rules of the Senate and the Assembly, a bill is re-referred to the fiscal committee when the bill does one of four things:

  1. It appropriates money;
  2. It will result in a substantial expenditure of state money;
  3. It will result in a substantial loss of revenue for the state (one of the most common examples of this is a tax credit or tax exemption the reduces money to the state); or:
  4. It results in a substantial reduction of expenditures of state money by reducing, transferring, or eliminating any existing responsibilities of any state agency, program, or function.

The fourth one is a little more ambiguous and I would note that while the last three all talk about substantial, nothing in the Joint Rules – specifically Joint Rule 10.5 – defines the word substantial.

Under the rules of both houses, as opposed to the joint rules, the respective committees on appropriations may maintain a suspense file. Basically, that’s a file to which bills are referred by a majority vote of the members of the committee to allow further consideration and ultimate vote by the fiscal committee. A bill can be taken off the suspense file and heard with a two-day notice that is published in the Assembly Daily File or the Senate Daily File. Taking a bill off the suspense file requires a vote of the majority of the members of the committee.

There’s more on the suspense file process in the audio portion of today’s post. Thanks for listening.

 

 

 

 

Concurrence in Bill Amendments (transcript)

Today’s post is on concurrence in bill amendments.

The California Legislature is a bicameral body with two houses in the legislature. After a bill has been passed by the house of origin, it is then transmitted to the other house for further consideration. If the second house makes amendments to the bill, then the bill must return to the house of origin for a final vote called a “concurrence vote” prior to being submitted to the Governor for his or her signature or veto.

When the Senate amends and passes an Assembly Bill or the Assembly amends and passes a Senate Bill, then the Senate, if it’s an SB, or the Assembly, if it’s an AB, has one of two choices- it must either concur or non-concur in the amendments made to that bill by the other house. If the Senate concurs, if it’s an SB, or if the Assembly concurs, if it’s an AB, then the Secretary of the Senate or the Chief Clerk of the Assembly notifies the house making those amendments that the house of origin concurred in the amendments and the bill is ordered to enrollment before being sent to the Governor’s desk.

If the amendments are more technical in nature, then they can be considered on the floor without a re-referral to a policy committee in the house of origin. In such a case, the bill must be on file at least one day, although this rule is waived during the final days of the legislative session. However, if substantive changes were made to the bill in the other house, then a policy committee in the house of origin will need to consider the bill as amended by the other house. The house of origin must concur in the other house’s amendments in order for the bill to be sent to the Governor for his final action.

In most instances, the concurrence vote is relatively straight forward because the bill has already passed its house of origin once, and so it is anticipated that the measure will pass again after the other house has also passed the bill. On occasion, however, a bill that has been amended in a manner that’s objectionable to the house of origin, which creates a lack of support for the bill, can occur.

Misconception Monday – Ethics

Hello, and welcome to Episode 5 of my Misconception Monday series. In this series of podcasts, I identify and dispel common misconceptions that are related to the many aspects of the California legislative process.

Today we’ll be moving away from podcasts on common misconceptions as they relate to bills. If you want to refer back to those, you can always go back and listen to my podcasts on bills, bill deadlines, bill referrals, and bill amendments.

Today we’ll move in to a topic that ties in to the news about the sexual harassment that has been going on in the Capitol, both here in Sacramento and in Washington, D.C.. The topic of today’s podcast is common misconceptions about legislative ethics.

Relevant to the ongoing conversation about sexual harassment in the Legislature are the following common misconceptions that I call out in the podcast.

One misconception is that both houses of the Legislature have adopted a formal standard of conduct for their members. In fact, only the California State Senate has adopted an official code of conduct for its members. The Assembly has not adopted one.

Another misconception is that only a court of law can remove a legislator from office. Actually, the California State Constitution, Article IV, Section 5 (a) (1) reads:

Each house of the Legislature shall judge the qualifications and elections of its Members and, by rollcall vote entered in the journal, two-thirds of the membership concurring, may expel a Member.”

So it is the members of the Legislature, and not a court of law, that can remove a member from office. You can also refer to a post by my colleague, McGeorge Professor Leslie Gielow Jacobs, on disciplining elected officials to learn about some other ways elected officials can be removed from office.

I hope you enjoy today’s post and podcast on common misconceptions related to legislative ethics.

Prop 54 and the 72-hour in print rule

Hello. In today’s podcast I’m exploring how the California State Assembly complies with the 72-hour in print rule that was put in place by Prop 54. Prop 54 was a constitutional amendment that was passed by the California voters in November 2016. It did two things, but only one of those things is germane to today’s discussion.

The 72-hour in print rule became a hot topic of discussion in 2017 – the first year Prop 54’s rules affected the California Legislature – during the House of Origin deadline on June 2nd. Before we get in to that, what exactly is the 72-hour in print rule? The rule is, essentially, that before a bill can be voted on to become a statute, it must be in print and published on the internet for at least 72 hours. Colloquially, this has been referred to as the 3-day in print rule, but that is incorrect. The language in the constitutional amendment refers specifically to hours, not days. There is an exception made for bills necessary to address a State of Emergency that has been declared by the Governor.

That leads us to the question at hand. During the House of Origin deadline week, the Assembly passed 95 bills that had been amended but had not been in print for 72 hours since being amended. The author of Prop 54 publicly claimed that this action violated the new rules. So what happened to those 95 bills after they left the Assembly?

Of the 95 bills, only three were not amended in the Senate. The other 92 bills were amended in the Senate, which means that when they left the Assembly they were not in their final form. What of the three that were not amended? Those bills returned to the Assembly for what they called a final form vote and that is how the Assembly complied the Prop 54’s 72-hour in print rule.

Differences Between the Assembly and the State Senate

In today’s podcast, I explore some the differences between the California State Senate and State Assembly, as they relate to the legislative processes of both houses. For the most part, the differences are fairly minor, since they both play similar roles in the legislative process. In other cases, the differences are more interesting. As to the differences between the two houses that aren’t just about legislative processes? Well, that’s another podcast.