Today we’ll take a look at some key differences in four common legislative floor operations at the end of the legislative session versus earlier in the session.

Concurrence

Under Assembly Rule 77, a vote to concur in any Senate amendments to an Assembly Bill must meet the same vote threshold required for the bill

With the 2021 legislative session at a close, we can now turn our attention to the actions Governor Newsom can take on the bills that were passed at the conclusion of the session on September 10. Governor Newsom can consider bills under October 10.

As a quick reminder, there are three actions that the

There are multiple players who take part in setting education policy in the state of California.

Article IX, which focuses on education, of the California Constitution has sixteen sections. Section 2 provides that a Superintendent of Public Instruction, sometimes referred to as SPI, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the state at

California, like all other states and the federal government, have a system for the employment of individuals, our public employee system. Many of the provisions for California’s public employee system are spelled out in our state’s constitution.

Article VII was added to the California Constitution by Proposition 14 on the June 8, 1976, ballot.

The California Air Resources Board, also known by its acronym, CARB, has a number of roles. Those roles include protecting the public from harmful effects of air pollution, as well as developing programs and actions to fight climate change in the state of California.

CARB is part of a coordinated three tier approach to

One way to determine the legislative intent behind a particular bill is to review a letter to the Daily Journal for that measure. While you may find the same letter for a bill in the Daily Journal of both houses, generally a letter related to an Assembly Bill is found in the Assembly Daily

The judicial branch of government is generally reluctant to review the record-keeping practices of the Legislature that is used to determine the validity of statutes. This limitation on judicial inquiry is known as the enrolled bill rule. It’s a legal doctrine that holds that if an act in the Legislature is “properly enrolled, authenticated,

The Department of General Services, known by its acronym of DGS, is a centralized business management hub where the state government can utilize specialized techniques and skills as necessary to ensure a high level of efficiency and economy. These services include, but are not limited to, planning, acquisition, construction, and maintenance of state buildings

In 1994, California created the Bergeson-Peace Infrastructure and Economic Development Bank, more commonly known as Ibank. The IBank is California’s only general purpose financing authority. It helps finance public infrastructure and private development that promotes a healthy climate for jobs, contributes to a strong economy, and improves the quality of life in California communities.

California’s Department of Consumer Affairs, more commonly known as DCA, is responsible for protecting California consumers. The DCA does this through oversight enforcement and licensure of professions. By regulating the professional licenses, DCA protects consumers from unscrupulous and unqualified professionals and professionals from unfair competition by unlicensed practitioners.

The DCA is comprised of 37